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Iran Land Border Crossing In | Out

  • Written by Siavash
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If you have wondered whether it is possible to obtain Iran Visa on any of Iran's land borders, the answer is DEFINITELY NO.


To gain entry to Iran through its land borders, you must have obtained your visa beforehand. The only way you can gain entry to Iran on land borders is to have your visa issued by Iran's Ministry of Foreign Affairs beforehand and to have a valid passport at least for the next 6 months with at least 2 blank pages as well.

In case you have obtained your Visa and your passport meets the above requirements, here are the access points on all of land borders of Iran: 

From the earliest merchants seeking fortunes on The Silk Road until today, millions of people have been crossing Iran by land.
Iran shares over a dozen international overland crossing borders which permits overland travelers traveling or crossing in/out Iran by land borders from Armenia, Azerbaijan Republic, Turkmenistan and Caspian Sea in North. Turkey and Iraq in West. Mighty Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman in South. Afghanistan and Pakistan in east. 


Iran Popular Borders for Overlan Entry ( Regulations & Visa)

  • Land Border Between Iran & Afghanistan

Islam Qala (Taybad) in Iran or Dogharon in Afghanistan; an open and straightforward border, is about 20 km east of Taybad in Iran. Daily regular buses between Herat and Mashhad are available to make your trip easy.


- Iran visas are not issued at Dogharon border.


  • Land Border Between Iran & Armenia

Norduz in Iran or Meghri Agarak in Armenia is the only open 35 km long border and routes between Iran and Armenia.
Jolfa is the first tiny city after to border which is reachable by taxies after Iranian border. Once in Jolfa, regular buses to Tabriz and suburbs are available.
On the Iranian side take the Taxi to Jolfa, the first tiny town after the border. From Jolfa buses are regularly ply to Tabriz and suburbs.


- Iran visas are not issued at Norduz border.
- Armenian visas are issued, it’s very smooth except sometimes that the bus leaves you before you have the visa.


  • Land Borders Between Iran & Azerbaijan (2 Recognized Crossing Points)

Aslandooz (Astara) in Iran or Astara Lankaran in Azerbaijan .
Jolfa in Iran or Culfa in Azerbaijan which also leading to the exclave of Nakhchivan, from where you cannot enter Armenia and must fly to get to Baku.

- Iran visas are not issued at these borders.



Direct buses between Tehran and Baku, via Astara, are as rarely available. Well, you don’t miss a big chance as crossing the border as a pedestrian is much easier than being in a cross-border bus and having a long delay for a full cavity search.

Nowadays train access to Jolfa is available, but to Astara is promised for future and it is still under construction.


  • Land Borders Between Iran & Iraq (4 Recognized Borders)

Marivan (Bashmaq) border is one of the recognized border between Iran and north Iraq, the Kurdish region. It is about 15km out from the border city of Marivan which is reachable by public transports from Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran.
If your journey in Kurdistan starts from Sulemaniyeh, it is the best border to cross.

- Iran visas are not issued at Marivan border.
Hajomran border is the other recognized border between Iran and further north Iraq, Kurdish region. It is near Piranshahr city which is reachable by public transport both from Sanandaj and Orumiyeh in Iran.
If your journey in Kurdistan starts from further north Erbil, it is the best border to cross.

- Iran visas are not issued at Hajomran border.
Mehran is one of the recognized borders between Iran and south Iraq, the Arabic part. This border services the holy cities of Najaf and Karbala in Iraq.

- Iran visas are not issued at Mehran border.
Khosravi is one of the recognized borders between Iran and south Iraq, the Arabic part. This border services the holy cities of Najaf and Karbala in Iraq.

- Iran visas are not issued at Khosravi border.


  • Land Border Between Iran & Pakistan

Mirjave in Iran or Taftan in Pakistan is the only recognized border along the 830 km border with Pakistan as a straightforward crossing if not necessarily comfortable.
Mirjaveh is 85 km south east from Zahedan (reachable by public transport from there).

- Iran visas are not issued at Mirjaveh border.


  • Land Borders Between Iran & Turkey (2 Recognized Borders)

Crossing in/out between Iran and Turkey is a piece of cake. There are two recognized borders:
Bazargan in Iran or Gürbulak (Dogubayazit) in Turkey, where there are hotels, money changing facilities and regular transport on either side of the border, though staying in nearby Maku is more pleasant. Motorists usually cross at Gürbulak and Bazargan.

- Iran visas are not issued at Bazargan border.
Sero in Iran or Esendere in Turkey is the other open border for crossing in/out between Iran and Turkey. Sero, near Orumiyeh in Iran is reachable by public transport from Orumiyeh and Esendere is 40km from Yüksekova, Turkey. There is nowhere to stay on either side and transport can be infrequent.

- Iran visas are not issued at Sero border.



There are two options for travelling by bus. The easier is to take a direct long-distance bus Tehran or Tabriz from İstanbul, Ankara or Erzurum.
Buses to/from Tehran to İstanbul take about 36 to 42 hours and to Ankara, which is nearer is shorter. They leave from both the central and western bus terminals; several bus companies offer the service, but usually it’s just one bus that runs.
Maybe taking a bus to Ankara is better as it is normally full of students and embassy workers, rather than the İstanbul bus, which is full of traders and therefore more likely to be taken apart at customs.
Alternatively, take it more slowly and enjoy some of eastern Turkey and western Iran along the way. By taking a bus to – but not across – either border you’ll avoid having to wait for dozens of fellow passengers to clear customs. It’s usually possible to cross from ErzurumTurkey to TabrizIran in one day if you start early.
It takes longer in winter when high mountain passes near the border are frequently snowbound.
The train from İstanbul to Tehran via Ankara and Tabriz is called the Trans-Asia Express, which runs weekly in either direction. It is a 2968 km journey which takes about 70 hours and seating is comfortable 1st-class couchettes with four berths.

The Trans-Asia Express is two trains; an Iranian train between Tehran and Van, on the shores of Lake Van in eastern Turkey, and a Turkish train from Tatvan to Ankara and İstanbul. Delays are likely in winter when snow can block the tracks and low temperatures can freeze the plumbing.


  • Land Borders Between Iran & Turkmenistan (3 Recognized Borders)

There are three border posts open to foreigners along this 1206 km-long frontier linking Mashhad in Iran and Ashgabat in Turkmenistan; Incheh Borun and Gyzyl-Etrek, Bajgiran and Howdan.
Bajgiran in Iran or Yablonovka Gaudan in Turkmenistan is one of the open land borders between Iran & Turkmenistan. There are public transports from Mashhad to Ghochan and Bajgiran border; it is about 4 hours to Bajgiran from Mashhad and 2 hours to Ghochan. But once you cross into Iran you can share or take a private taxi to the first city (2-hour to Ghochan) and from there take a bus to Mashhad.

- Iran visa is not issued at Bajgiran border.
- Changing transport at all three borders is required.
Sarakhas in Iran or Gudurolum in Turkmenistan is the other border between Iran & Turkmenistan. There is a MashhadSaraghs train, but no international trains into Turkmenistan, while Gudurolum is reachable by car or taxi only.

- Iran visas are not issued at Sarakhas border.

Language & Literature

  • Written by Sady Qavipisheh
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Article 15 of the Iranian constitution states that the "Official language (of Iran)... is Persian...[and]... the use of regional and tribal languages in the press and mass media, as well as for teaching of their literature in schools, is allowed in addition to Persian." Persian serves as a lingua franca in Iran and most publications and broadcastings are in this language.

Next to Persian, there are many publications and broadcastings in other relatively popular languages of Iran such as Azeri, Kurdish and even in less popular ones such as Arabic and Armenian. Many languages originated in Iran, but Persian is the most used language. Persian belongs to Iranian branch of the Indo-European family of languages. The oldest records in Old Persian date to the Achaemenid Empire, and examples of Old Persian have been found in present-day Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt.

In the late 8th century, Persian was highly Arabized and written in a modified Arabic script. This caused a movement supporting the revival of Persian. An important event of this revival was the writing of the Shahname by Ferdowsi (Persian: Epic of Kings), Iran's national epic, which is said to have been written entirely in native Persian. This gave rise to a strong reassertion of Iranian national identity, and is in part credited for the continued existence of Persian as a separate language.


The Persian Language

The Old Persian of the Achaemenian Empire, preserved in a number of cuneiform inscriptions, was an Indo-European tongue with close affinities with Sanskrit and Avestan (the language of the Zoroastrian sacred texts). After the fall of the Achaemenians the ancient tongue developed, in the province of Pars, into Middle Persian or Pahlavi (a name derived from Parthavi - that is, Parthian). Pahlavi was used throughout the Sassanian period, though little now remains of what must once have been a considerable literature. About a hundred Pahlavi texts survive, mostly on religion and all in prose. Pahlavi collections of romances, however, provided much of the material for Ferdowsi's Shahnameh.

After the Arab conquest a knowledge of Arabic became necessary, for it was not only the language of the new rulers and their state, but of the religion they brought with them and -later- of the new learning. Though Pahlavi continued to be spoken in private life, Arabic was dominant in official circles for a century and a half. With the weakening of the central power, a modified form of Pahlavi emerged, with its Indo-European grammatical structure intact but simplified, and with a large infusion of Arabic words. This was the Modem Persian in use today.

Arabic continued to be employed in Iran, though on a decreasing scale, as Latin was used in Europe -that is, as a language of the learned. As such it was employed by Abu Ali Sina (Avicenna), al-Biruni, Rhazes, Al Ghazali and others; indeed, many of the most famous names in Arabic literature are those of men of Persian birth. But in general the use of Arabic declined; Persian developed rapidly to become the vehicle of a great literature, and before, long spread its influence to neighboring lands. In India, Persian language and poetry became the vogue with the ruling classes, and at the court of the Moghul emperor Akbar Persian was adopted as the official language; spreading thence and fusing later with Hindi, it gave rise to the Urdu tongue.

To the west of Iran, Persian heavily influenced the language and literature of Turkey; Turkish verse was based on Persian models as regards form and style, and borrowed an extensive vocabulary.

A notable feature of Persian is the small extent to which it has changed over the thousand years or more of its existence as a literary language. Thus the poems of Roudaki, the first Persian poet of note, who died in the year 941 CE, are perfectly intelligible to the modem reader. Persian literature too has a number of noteworthy characteristics, the most striking of which is the exceptional prominence of poetry. Until quite recently there was practically no drama, and no novels were written; prose works were mostly confined to history, geography, philosophy, religion, ethics and politics, and it was poetry that formed the chief outlet for artistic expression. Classical Persian literature was produced almost entirely under royal patronage whence the frequency of panegyric verse. An influence of at least equal strength was religion, and in particular Sufism, which inspired the remarkably high proportion of mystical poetry.


Persian Poetry

Classical Persian poetry is always rhymed. The principal verse forms are the Qasideh, Masnavi, Qazal and Ruba'i. The qasida or ode is a long poem in monorhyme, usually of a panegyric, didactic or religious nature; the masnavi, written in rhyming couplets, is employed for heroic, romantic, or narrative verse; the ghazal (ode or lyric) is a comparatively short poem, usually amorous or mystical and varying from four to sixteen couplets, all on one rhyme. A convention of the ghazal is the introduction, in the last couplet, of the poet's pen name (takhallus). The ruba'i is a quatrain with a particular metre, and a collection of quatrains is called "Ruba'iyyat" (the plural of ruba'i). Finally, a collection of a poet's ghazals and other verse, arranged alphabetically according to the rhymes, is known as a divan.
A word may not be out of place here on the peculiar difficulties of interpreting Persian poetry to the western reader. To the pitfalls common to all translations from verse must be added, in the case of Persian poetry, such special difficulties as the very free use of Sufi imagery, the frequent literary, Koranic and other references and allusions, and the general employment of monorhyme, a form highly effective in Persian but unsuited to most other languages. But most important of all is the fact that the poetry of Persia depends to a greater degree than that of most other nations on beauty of language for its effects. This is why much of the great volume of "qasidas in praise of princes" can still be read with pleasure in the original, though It is largely unsuited to translation. In short, the greatest charm of Persian poetry lies, as Sir E. Denison Ross remarked, in its language and its music, and consequently the reader of a translation "has perforce to forego the essence of the matter".
In the following brief sketch of the vast field of Persian literature we cannot hope to do more than mention a few of the most eminent authors, and to devote a paragraph or two each to the most famous of all.


Early Literature

Though existing fragments of Persian verse are believed to date from as early as the eighth century CE, the history of Persian literature proper begins with the lesser dynasties of the ninth and tenth centuries that emerged with the decline of the Caliphate. The most important of these were the Samanids, who established at Bokhara the first of many brilliant courts that were to patronize learning and letters. Here Abu Ali Sina, better known in the west as Avicenna, developed the medicine and philosophy of ancient Greece, and wrote numerous works that were to exercise considerable influence not only in the East but in Europe -where, translated into Latin, they were in use as late as the seventeenth century. Avicenna wrote mostly in Arabic, but composed an encyclopaedia -- the Danish Nameh-ye Ala'i - in Persian.
The most famous of the court poets were Rudaki and Daqiqi. Rudaki, generally regarded as the first of the great Persian poets, wrote a very large quantity of verse, of which but little has survived. His style direct, simple and unadorned - was to appear unpolished to some of the over-elaborate versifiers of later ages, but appeals more to modem tastes. Daqiqi, a composer of epics, was commissioned to write a work on the ancient kings of Persia, but only completed a thousand couplets before his death. Some of these were later incorporated in the celebrated Shahnameh.

The Ghaznavid And Early Seljuq Periods

It is said that four hundred poets were attached to the court of Sultan Mahmoud; of these, the most notable were Unsuri, the greatest of Mahmoud's panegyrists, followed by Farrukhi, Manouchehri and Asadi. Of the prose writers, the most celebrated was Biruni, author of the "Chronology of Ancient Nations", who wrote exclusively in Arabic.
The Seljuq era, regarded as the second classical period of Persian literature, is one rich both in prose and poetry. Famous prose works include Ghazali's influential Revivification of the Religious Sciences in Arabic and its Persian summary entitled Kimiya-ye Sa'adat (The Alchemy of Happiness); Baihaqi's History of the Ghaznavids: the Siasat Nameh, a treatise on the art of government by Nizam ul-Mulk, vizier to Alp Arslan and Malik Shah; the entertaining Qabus Nameh of Kai Kawous, translated by Professor Levy as "A Mirror for Princes"; the collection of animal fables of Indian origin entitled Kalila va Dimna by Nasr Ullah; the charming Chahar Maqala or Four Discourses of Nizami Aruzi; the Fars Nameh of Ibn al-Balkhi, and the noted treatise on poetics of Rashid-i Vatvat. Four of the above works - the Chahar Maqala, the History of Baihaqi, the Qabus Nameh and the Siasat Nameh - are considered by the poet Bahar as the four great masterpieces of early Persian prose.
A number of authors of this period wrote both prose and poetry. One of the most brilliant of these was Nasir-i Khosrow, writer of some fifteen works in prose and 30,000 verses, of which less than half have survived. His best known prose work is the Safar Nameh, an account of his journey to Egypt. Most of Nasir-i Khosrow's poems are lengthy odes, mainly on religious and ethical subjects; they are noted for their purity of language and dazzling technical skill. In the opinion of the scholar Mirza Mohammad Qazvini, the name of Naser Khosrow should be added to those of the six poets - Ferdowsi, Khayyam, Anvari, Rumi, Saadi, and Hafez - whom "practically all" agree to consider the six greatest Persian poets, each in his special field. Other famous poetry of the period includes the work of the mystics Ansari, Abu Sa'id and Baba Taher of Hamadan; the odes of Qatran; Gorgani's romantic epic Vis o Ramin, and the Divans of the two Indian-born poets Masoud-e Saad-e Salman and Rumi. Seven other poets of the period are of outstanding fame and brilliance; these are Khayyam, Sana'i, Moezzi, Anvari, Khaqani, Nizami and Attar.
The versatile Khayyam - "the only man known to me", says Bertrand Russell, "who was both a poet and a mathematician" - is still perhaps the best known and most appreciated Persian poet in Europe and America. There was for long considerable scepticism as to whether he was in fact the author of all or any of the quatrains attributed to him, but the discovery recently of manuscripts more ancient than any of those previously known has removed these doubts.
Khayyam's poetry was largely neglected in Iran until the end of the nineteenth century. When Fitzgerald's translation made him suddenly popular in the west the Iranians began to reassess his merits as a poet, and as we have seen, some native critics are now ready to accord him a place in the poetic Pantheon. Since he uses imagery common to the Sufis, Khayyam has often been hailed as a Sufi himself; but while some of his quatrains can be made to bear a mystical interpretation, the general impression of his work is one of hedonism tinged with a gentle melancholy, born of acceptance of the tragic transience of life, the power of destiny and man's ultimate ignorance. The attitude is that of a materialist rather than a deist; indeed, he has with some justice been compared to Lucretius.
Sana'i, who wrote in a style similar to that of Nasir-i Khosrow, was the author of two great Sufi epics, the prototypes of the later masterpieces of Attar and Rumi, as well as of a huge divan. Mu'izzi, hailed by 'Abbas Ighbal as "one of the artistic virtuosi of the Persian language", wrote mainly panegyric verse in a highly elaborate style. Anvari, author of numerous poetical works, mostly panegyric, wrote in a difficult style, sometimes requiring a commentary; he is regarded by some as one of the greatest Persian poets. The poetry of Khaqani is even more mannered. The last three poets mentioned - Mu'izzi, Anvari and Khaqani - are all famous in Iran, mainly for their technical brilliance; but, being particularly difficult to translate, they are less appreciated in the west. This is not the case with the next two poets to be mentioned.
Nizami, born at Ganja in the Caucasus in 1140, was a prolific writer famous especially for his Khamseh or Quintet, a series of five great romances and epics. These consist of the Makhzan al-Asrar or Treasure House of Secrets, a mystical epic inspired by Sana'i; the popular romances Khosrow o Shirin and Laila o Majnun; the Iskandar Nameh or Story of Alexander, and the Haft Paikar, the life story of Bahram Gur. Nizami's style is original and, colorful; his works enjoyed great popularity, and episodes from his romantic poems were favorite subjects for miniature painters.
Farid od-Din Attar, who was born possibly around 1136, was a great and an original poet who produced numerous religious and didactic works. He was essentially a mystic, and as such exercised a great influence on Rumi. The best known of his works, the Mantiq ut-Tair (translated by Fitzgerald as the Bird Parliament), is a mystical allegory in which the birds all set off in search of the mythical Simorgh, whom they wish to make their king. The story, which symbolizes the quest of the soul for union with God, ends with their discovery that they have no existence separate from the object of their search.

The Simorgh then addresses them thus:

Pilgrim, pilgrimage and road
Was but myself toward myself, and your
Arrival but myself at my own Door...
Come, you lost atoms, to your center draw
And be the eternal mirror that you saw:
Rays that have wandered into darkness wide
Return, and back into your sun subside.


The Thirteenth Century as a New Chapter

The Thirteenth century produced two poetic geniuses of the first rank, Saadi and Rumi. It is also particularly notable for histories, of which many were inspired by these singularly troubled times. Hamdullah Mostofi produced notable works both of history and geography, as well as an epic, the Zafar Nameh or Book of Victory, in 75,000 couplets, and Nasir ud-Din Tusi wrote on philosophy and logic. Three notable poets of the period are Iraqi, author of the mystical Lama'at or Flashes; Amir Khosrow, known as "The Parrot of India" and author of no less than five divans, and Zakani the satirist.
Foremost in the ranks of historical works are Juvaini's Tarikh-e Jahan Gusha, an account of the Mongol conquests; the history of Juzjani, an important source book for the history of Moslem India; Rashid ud-Din's great Jame ot-Tawarikh or Universal History, and the History of Vassaf. The style of the period tended to over-ornateness; Juvaini, according to Arberry, was "the most accomplished exponent of the prized art of verbal arabesque", while Vassaf "modeled his style on Juvaini at his most intricate and verbose." Of the writings of this school Levy remarks that it was "so filled with metaphor, allusion, and assonance, that the meaning was often lost in a tangle of verbiage". By contrast, the work of the conscientious Rashid ud-Din, considered by Browne to be the best of all the Persian historians, is a model of clarity.


The Fifteenth Century onwards

The fifteenth century produced a number of notable historians -Nizam od-Din Shami, author of the Zafar Nameh (a history of Timur); Yazdi, who wrote a work of the same name; Hafiz-e Abru, Khafi, Dowlatshah and Mir Khand, author of the immense Rozat as-Safa or Garden of Purity. Other prose writers of note, include Davvani, author of the Akhlaq-e Jalali, and Kashefi, who produced an elaborate prose paraphrase of Kalila va Dimna known as Anvar-e Suhaili (The Lights of Canopus). Fifteenth century poets include the Sufis Maghribi and Qasim-e Anvar, Katibi, the saintly Ni'mat Allah Vali, and Jami.
Jami, "universally regarded as the last eminent figure in the history of classical Persian literature" (Arberry) was born in 1414. A man of considerable erudition as well as of poetic genius, Jami produced some forty-five works, of which the best known are the Baharistan, the Divan, and the Haft Aurang or Seven Thrones, a series of four didactic works and three romances (Salaman o Absal, Yosef o Zoleikha and Laila o Majnoun) which he intended to rival the work of Nizami.
After Jami, who died shortly before the rise of the Safavis, Persian poetry is generally considered to have fallen into decline. There were indeed no poets of the very first rank after the fifteenth century, yet in this long period there was no lack of writers and poets of talent, some of them of great eminence.
Of the poets immediately following Jami, his nephew Hatif was a noted writer of romantic and historical epics; also famous were his pupils Asafi, Fighani (who earned himself the title of "The Little Hafiz"), Ahli and the Sufi poet Hilali. Later in the sixteenth century came the poets Hayrati, Kasimi, Kashi the panegyrist, Shani, Fasihi and Shafai.
Saeb (born 1677), the greatest literary figure of the seventeenth century, is considered by some to be the best Persian poet after Jami. In early life he spent some time in India as court poet to the Moghul emperor Shah Jahan, and returned to Iran to become poet laureate to Shah Abbas II. Saeb was a vivid and original poet who infused fresh life into the old forms and founded a new school. Also of note was his contemporary Fayyaz. A famous prose writer of the eighteenth century was Azar, author of the Atesh Kadeh (a biographical dictionary containing the lives of over 800 poets) as well as of a divan and a romantic epic. The prolific writer Hazin produced histories and an autobiography, as well as four divans. Also worthy of note is the poet Nejat.
In the nineteenth century Saba, poet laureate to Fath Ali Shah composed a divan and an epic called the Shahanshahnameh; as a poet he was excelled by Neshat, also author of a divan. Qaani (died 1853), the best writer of the nineteenth century and perhaps the most outstanding since Jami, was one of Iran's most brilliant and melodious poets. Well-known prose works of the period include Nasir ud-Din Shah's diaries of his three journeys to Europe and the literary biographies of the poet Reza Quli Khan. This period was marked by the increasing influence of European literature, noticeable in the works of the poet Shaybani and others.
The real revival of Persian letters came in the early twentieth century, when the growing desire for reform inspired numerous satires. One of the most outstanding figures of this period was Iraj Mirza (died 1926), a poet of great talent and champion of the emancipation of women. Other noted poets were Adib, Bahar, Lahuti, Shahryar, Aref and the poetess Parvin E'tesami. Poets of more recent decades include Nima Yoshij, Ra'di, Khanlari, Islami, Gulchin, Ahmad Shamlou, Mehdi Akhavan Sales, Mas'ud Farzad, Sohrab Sepehri, Fereidoon Moshiri and the poetess Forough Farrokhzad. Some of these poets have introduced verse forms new to Persian literature. Here should not be forgotten the great works of Sadeq Hedayat, Samad Behrangi, Sadeq Choubak and many others who enriched the persian literature.

Iranian Calender

  • Written by Sady Qavipisheh
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Iranian official calendar, regulate according to Solar year & Iranian months.21 March, equal 1 Farvardin, is beginning of Iranian New Year. Also in Iran, Lunar calendar announce officially. Lunar year is 10 days less than Solar year ,so days of performing religious rites, that adjust according Lunar calendar, each year is different from next & former years. Therefore it recommended to tourists that arrange their proper traveling time with related agency. Especially in Ramadan month that Muslim Iranian, are fasting and in Muharram are mournful, so these situations influence on daily & current activities and some days in these two month is public holiday. Friday is official holiday.

The Iranian calendars or sometime Persian calendars are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Greater Iran. One of the longest chronological records in human history, the Iranian calendar has been modified time and again during its history to suit administrative, climatic, and religious purposes.
The modern Iranian calendar (Solar Hejri) is now the official calendar in Iran and Afghanistan. It begins on the vernal equinox as determined by astronomical calculations for the Iran Standard Time meridian (52.5°E or GMT+3.5h).
This determination of starting moment is more accurate than the Gregorian calendar because it is synchronized with the vernal equinox year, but requires consulting an astronomical almanac. Its years are designated AP, short for Anno Persico.
The Iranian year usually begins within a day of 21 March of the Gregorian calendar. To find the corresponding year of the Gregorian calendar, add 621 or 622 (depending on the time of the year) to a Solar Hejri year.
On 21 February 1911, the second Persian parliament adopted as the official calendar of Iran the Jalālī solar calendar with months bearing the names of the twelve constellations of the zodiac and the years named for the animals of the duodecennial cycle; it remained in use until 1925. The present Iranian calendar was legally adopted on 31 March 1925, under the early Pahlavi dynasty. The law said that the first day of the year should be the first day of spring in "the true solar year", "as it has been". It also fixed the number of days in each month, which previously varied by year with the tropical zodiac. It revived the ancient Persian names, which are still used. It specified the origin of the calendar (Hegira of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE). It also deprecated the 12-year cycles of the Chinese-Uighur calendar which were not officially sanctioned but were commonly used.
The first six months (Farvardin–Shahrivar) have 31 days, the next five (Mehr–Bahman) have 30 days, and the last month (Esfand) has 29 days or 30 days in leap years. The reason the first six months have 31 days and the rest 30 may have to do with the fact that the sun moves slightly more slowly along the ecliptic in the northern spring and summer than in the northern autumn and winter (the time between the vernal equinox and the autumnal equinox is about 186 days and 10 hours, the opposite duration about 178 days, 20 hours).
The Solar Hejri calendar produces a five-year leap year interval after about every seven four-year leap year intervals. It usually follows a 33-year cycle with occasional interruptions by single 29-year or 37-year subcycles. By contrast, some less accurate predictive algorithms are suggestion based on confusion between average tropical year (365.2422 days, approximated with near 128-year cycles or 2820-year great cycles) and the mean interval between spring equinoxes (365.2424 days, approximated with a near 33-year cycle).
In 1976, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi changed the origin of the calendar, using the birth of Cyrus as the first day, rather than the Hejra of Muhammad. Overnight, the year changed from 1355 to 2535. The change lasted till the Islamic Revolution in Iran, 1979; at which time the calendar was reverted back to Solar Hejri.


Iranian Month Names

Order Days Iranian Persian
Iranian-English Native Script
1 31 Farvardin فروردین
2 31 Ordibehesht اردیبهشت
3 31 Khordad خرداد
4 31 Tir تیر
5 31 Mordad مرداد
6 31 Shahrivar شهریور
7 30 Mehr مهر
8 30 Aban آبان
9 30 Azar آذر
10 30 Dey دی
11 30 Bahman بهمن
12 29/30 Esfand اسفند


















 The first day of the calendar year is also the day of the greatest festival of the year in Iran, Afghanistan and surrounding regions, called norooz (two morphemes: no (new) and rooz (day), meaning "new day"). The celebration is filled with many festivities and runs a course of 13 days. The last day of which is called siz-dah bedar (Literal translation-"13 to outdoor")

Days of the week

In the Iranian calendar, every week begins on Saturday and ends on Friday. The names of the days of the week are as follows: shambe (natively spelled "shanbeh"), yekshambe, doshambe, seshambe, chæharshambe, panjshambe and jom'e (yek, do, se, chæhar, and panj are the Persian words for the numbers one through five). The name for Friday, jom'e, is Arabic (Persian). Jom'e is sometimes referred to by the native Persian name, adineh. In most Islamic countries, Friday is the weekly holiday.
Calculating the day of the week is easy, using an anchor date. One good such date is Sunday, 1 Farvardin 1372, which equals 21 March 1993. Assuming the 33-year cycle approximation, move back by one weekday to jump ahead by one 33-year cycle. Similarly, to jump back by one 33-year cycle, move ahead by one weekday.
As in the Gregorian calendar, dates move forward exactly one day of the week with each passing year, except if there is an intervening leap day when they move two days. The anchor date 1 Farvardin 1372 is chosen so that its 4th, 8th... 32nd anniversaries come immediately after leap days, yet the anchor date itself does not immediately follow a leap day.


Relationship with the zodiac signs

Each month of the current Iranian calendar corresponds to the 12 signs of the zodiac in western tropical astrology. The vernal equinox or first point of Aries are taken to be the beginning of the solar year.

Month number Month name (Persian) Zodiac sign
1 Farvardin Aries
2 Ordibehesht Taurus
3 Khordad Gemini
4 Tir Cancer
5 Mordad Leo
6 Shahrivar Virgo
7 Mehr Libra
8 Aban Scorpio
9 Azar Sagittarius
10 Dey Capricorn
11 Bahman Aquarius
12 Esfand Pisces

Iranian People

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Iran is a diverse country consisting of people of many religions and ethnic backgrounds cemented by the Persian culture. The majority of the population speaks the Persian language, which is also the official language of the country, as well as other Iranian languages or dialects. Turkic languages and dialects, most importantly Azeri language, are spoken in different areas in Iran. Additionally, Arabic is spoken in the southwestern parts of the country.

Religion in Iran is dominated by the Twelver Shi'a branch of Islam, which is the official state religion and to which about 90% to 95% of Iranians belong. About 4% to 8% of Iranians belong to the Sunni branch of Islam, mainly Kurds and Iran's Balochi Sunni. The remaining 2% are non-Muslim religious minorities, including Bahá'ís, Mandeans, Hindus, Yezidis, Yarsanis, Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians.




The Iranian people are an Indo-European ethnic-linguistic group, consisting of the speakers of Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, as such forming a branch of Indo-European-speaking people. Their historical areas of settlement were on the Iranian plateau mainly in Iran, certain areas of Central Asia such as Tajikestan, most of Afghanistan, parts of Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan and scattered parts of the Caucasus Mountains. Their current distribution is spread across the Iranian plateau, stretching from the Indus in the east to central Anatolia in the west, and from Central Asia and the Caucasus to the Persian Gulf - a region that is sometimes termed the Iranian cultural continent, or Greater Persia by scholars, representing the extent of the Iranian languages and influence of the Persian People, through the geopolitical reach of the Persian empire.
The Iranian group emerges from an earlier Indo-Iranian unity during the Late Bronze Age, and they enter the historical record during the Early Iron Age. The Persians formed the Achaemenid Empire by the 6th century BC, while the Scythians dominated the Eurasian steppe. With numerous artistic, scientific, architectural and philosophical achievements and numerous kingdoms and empires that bridged much of the civilized world in antiquity, the Iranian people were often in close contact with the Greeks, Romans, Indians, and Chinese. In addition, the various religions of the Iranian people, including Zoroastrianism, Mithraism and Manichaeism, are believed by some scholars to be important early philosophical influences on Christianity and Judaism. Early Iranian tribes are the ancestors of many modern Iranian people.



There are an estimated 150 to 200 million native speakers of Iranian languages, the five major groups of Persians, Lurs, Kurds , Baloch, and Pashtuns accounting for about 90% of this number. Currently, most of these Iranian peoples live in Iran, the Caucasus (mainly Ossetia, other parts of Georgia, and Azerbaijan), Kurdish majority populated areas of Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
Due to recent migrations, there are also large communities of speakers of Iranian languages in Europe, the Americas, and Palestin.



It is largely through linguistic similarities that the Iranian people have been linked, as many non-Iranian people have adopted Iranian languages and cultures. However, other common traits have been identified as well and a stream of common historical events have often linked the southern Iranian people, including Hellenistic conquests, the various empires based in Persia, Arab Caliphates and Turkic invasions.



Like other Indo-Europeans, the early Iranians practiced ritual sacrifice, had a social hierarchy consisting of warriors, clerics and farmers and poetic hymns and sagas to recount their deeds.
Following the Iranian split from the Indo-Iranians, the Iranians developed an increasingly distinct culture. Various common traits can be discerned among the Iranian people. For example, the social event Norouz is an Iranian festival that is practiced by nearly all of the Iranian people as well as others in the region. Its origins are traced to Zoroastrianism and pre-historic times.
Some Iranian cultures exhibit traits that are unique unto themselves. The Pashtuns adhere to a code of honor and culture known as Pashtunwali, which has a similar counterpart among the Baloch, called Mayar that is more hierarchical.

Flag of Iran

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Flag Description and Meaning 

The design of the National flag of Iran consists of three identical horizontal bands of green on top, white in between, and red below. The National emblem which represents the name of Allah is placed on the center of the white band. The words "Allah-o-Akbar (God is great) is printed in white Arabic script and is repeated 22 times on the center border of the green and red band. The length of the flag is precisely twice the overall width with a ratio of 4:7.
The three colors of the National flag of Iran have symbolic connotations. The green stripe stand for growth and prosperity, white stands for peace and red is the color of the blood shed by the martyrs for the country's freedom.
The National emblem on the flag center comprises of four crescents and a sword. The four crescents of the emblem form the word Allah (God) and the five parts of the emblem represent the five pillars of Islam. On top of the sword, which symbolizes a strong and powerful sovereign state, is a tashdid. The tashdid is used in Arabic writing to double a letter and in this context it means to double the strength of the sword. The tulip shape of the emblem was chosen in remembrance of the young martyrs of Islamic Republic of Iran.


Colour Symbolism

Green: Vitality and growth
White: Honesty, purity, and peace
Red: Valour and sacrifice


History of the Iranian Flag

Flags, standards, and banners have always been important national and imperial symbols for Iranians, both in war and peace. Xenophon reports that Cyrus the Great's standard was a golden eagle with spread wings, mounted on a long shaft.
The best-known symbol of Iran in recent centuries has been the Lion and Sun motif, which is a graphic expression of the astrological configuration of the sun in the sign of Leo, although both celestial and animal figures have long and independent histories in Iranian heraldry.
Late in the nineteenth century the Lion and Sun motif was combined with an earlier scimitar motif and superimposed on a tricolour of green, white, and red. With minor modifications, this remained the official flag until the revolution of 1979.
Since Islam strictly prohibited figurative and expressive symbols as idol worship, all the traditional emblems used in Iranian flags were eliminated. Throughout this period there was no flag specific to Iran, although the use of Islamic banners was common.
In the constitution of 1980, Parliament changed the flag and seal of state. The Lion and Sun was succeeded by a new symbol, designed by Hamid Nadimi and officially approved by Ayatollah Khomeini on 9 May 1980, consisting of four crescents and a line. The four crescents form the word Allah: read from right to left the first crescent is the letter aleph, the second crescent is the first laam; the vertical line is the second laam, and the third and fourth crescents together form the heh.
Above the central stroke is a tashdid (a diacritical mark indicating gemination) resembling a letter W. The tulip shape of the emblem as a whole memorializes those who have died for Iran and symbolizes the values of patriotism and self-sacrifice, building on a legend that red tulips grow from the shed blood of martyrs. A further change to the flag following the revolution was the addition of writing to the inner edges of the green and red bands, reading Allahu Akbar ("God is great") in a stylized version of the Kufic script used for the Qur'an. There are 22 copies of this inscription, in two rows of eleven, symbolic of the 22nd day of the 11th month (Bahman) in the Persian calendar—the date of the Islamic revolution (22 Bahman 1357 = 11 February 1979 CE) that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty. This addition of writing renders the flag non-reversible. By decree the Lion and Sun was removed from public spaces and government organizations and replaced by the present-day emblem of Iran.

Behinburg Missions

World Travel Iran” staff as one of the member of Behinburg Tour & travel Company Group aims to open an unveiled and real image of Iran to all interested travelers to Iran. In your trip to Iran we always promised from the  very beginning of the time to offer a superior level of service.

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