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STONE CARVING

  • Written by Sady Qavipisheh
  • Category: Art
  • Hits: 978

Stone carving was started many centuries before Christ to make hunting tools and primary necessities of life in Iran and reached its zenith, gradually. Archaeological findings including the discovered objects in the excavations at Tepe Yahya ( Yahya hills) in Kerman province , Iran certify that the background of this industry dates back to 4500 years B.C. The discovery of these containers indicates that the stone carving has been in demand for making consumer and luxury goods from Green stone in Kerman. It is worth to mention that this kind of stone still is mined and transported to Mashhad. It must generally be said that Stone carving was devoted to make the agricultural tools, hunting equipments and skinning animals. Stone tools discovered in the excavations of Huto and Kamarband Caves (Belt Caves) located near the Behshahr city, Iran dating to8000 to 11000 years before Christ certify the above mentioned fact. Stone has had a crucial role for constructing the historical buildings and ancient monuments. Achaemenian palaces and stone carving belong to Sassanid period are among the most important historical buildings. Tahkt-e-Jamshid is a prominent example of stone carving industry in Achaemenian period. More than 600 healthy and fractured wares were discovered by academicians of Chicago University in the two treasury rooms of Persepolis. One of these containers is a stone footed goblet on which some pieces of gold and precious stone have been inlayed. There are some writings in the name of Ashurbanipal on it, too. Also, there is a footed goblet made of stone among these wares on which there are some epigraphs in the name of Khashayar Shah. Twelve swans looking at the inside of the cup are sculptured on the brim of this goblet.
Stone carving has been in demand in Ashkanid period. There are some typical works of stone carving in Ashkanid period in Behistun Monuments and at the bottom of the stone carving of Darius the Great. The carved faces on the surface of the works of this age are slightly projected but the figures of the characters are rigid and inflexible. Also, the Horseman Statue which attracted the attention of the craftsmen of this age and other stone carvings such as praying Zoroastrain priest who incenses Aloeswood are among the most prominent works of Ashkanid period.
The stone carving of Sassanid period can be recognized by the carving and embossed drawings on the stone, mostly created in the Fars mountain ranges. Most of these stone engravings were created to show the victory of Sassanids over the Roman Empire.
All Sassanid stone carvings include 20 sculpturing located in Naqsh-e Rostam, Naqsh-e Rajab (about 12 km north of Persepolis), Firuz abad and Mashhad.
Besides, Salmas stone carvings (northwest of the Lake Urmia) and Taq-e Bostan carvings ( located 5 km from the city centre of Kermanshah in western Iran)can be mentioned .All these stone carvings have been created during seventy years, from 225 to 295 B.C.

MOARRAGH (Marquetry)

  • Written by Sady Qavipisheh
  • Category: Art
  • Hits: 722

Moarragh or Marquetry is the art and craft of applying pieces of veneer into a context to form decorative patterns, designs or pictures. Moarragh or Inlaying on wood is a long-term Iranian craft and art which is much older than the other branches of woodcrafts such as Khatam-Kari (Incrustation work), Monabat-Kari (Fretwork), Wood Turning, Wood finishing, Basketry and straw weaving. According to the existing proofs and evidences, the original land of Moarragh has been India but it was imported to Iran many years ago and Iranian craftsmen and artists completed and developed it. Moarragh which first was a combination of wood and metal was evolved by Iranian Moarragh-makers. Instead of one kind of wood which constituted the original ground of the handmade works, Iranian craftsmen used the different kind of woods and colors.

GIVEH

  • Written by Sady Qavipisheh
  • Category: Art
  • Hits: 562

Giveh is a type of traditional Iranian shoe that is very comfortable, cool and rarely affordable. Its upper part is made from twisted cotton threads and the underneath is made from leather and rubber. Giveh is a nice handmade shoe. Giveh was a popular shoe up to Safavid period. According to travelers’ writings from this period, the upper classes wore leather shoes and the public wore Giveh. There had been a famous Giveh market in Isfahan, located near Aligholi Khan Bazaar (market). Shiraz also was a famous center of Giveh selling in the same period and they probably supplied Abadeh products which was one of the most famous southern cities. The most famous Giveh in Iran was a kind called Maleki which the upper part of it is exquisite and expensive and is mostly wore at home. Nowadays, Maleki Giveh is continued to be used too and sometimes is called slipper Giveh. Ajideh is another type of Giveh which has coarse woven upper part and also it seems cooler than the other types. The production centers of Giveh are the two provinces of Yazd and Kermanshah in Iran.

QALAM-KARI (Calico)

  • Written by Sady Qavipisheh
  • Category: Art
  • Hits: 1032

Qalamkari is a type of hand-painted or block-printed cotton textile, produced in parts of Iran. The art of Qalamkari first appeared in Persia during the Safavid in the XVI century. In those days artisans of Isfahan invented the new way of applying paint to the fabricwith the help of carved wooden stamps. Calico is one of the oldest crafts of ancient Iran which was in the peak of fame for centuries. Calico and fabric painting became popular in the Mongol era in Iran. Since the Mongol chiefs supported Chinese painted fabric, it had great market shares in Iran. Iranian also had tried to attend into this market by inventing new created painted fabric called Calico. This art flourished in Safavid period and declined in Qajar mid-age. Most of the Safavid clothes for men and women were made of Calico. These fabrics were highly popular in that period. These decorative, block-printed clothes known as Qalam-Kari are colored-fast to protect them against running and fading, available in various sizes and designs, these clothes make the perfect accent for tables, if you prefer, use them as wall hangings for a unique complimentary of your décor. They could also be used for Sajadeh (prayer mat), table cloth, mat, bath clothes, bedspread, pillowcase, quilt, curtains, drapes, throw pillow and so on.

MINA-KARI (Enamel)

  • Written by Sady Qavipisheh
  • Category: Art
  • Hits: 990

Enamel working and decorating metals with colorful and baked coats is one of the distinguished courses of art in Isfahan . Mina, is defined as some sort of glasslike colored coat which can be stabilized by heat on different metals particularly copper. Although this course is of abundant use industrially for producing metal and hygienic dishes, it has been paid high attention by painters, goldsmiths and metal engravers since long times ago. The art of Minakari or Enameling is referred to as ‘‘Art of Fire and Earth“a well as the decoration of metal and tile with mina glaze and baked and bright colors dating back to 1500 BC. Metallic containers were made from different metals, the most important of which are: gold, silver, copper, bronze, brass, iron, aluminum and chrome. Because of the facility of making metal sheets, the above mentioned metals were widely used to decorate jewellery and making different wares. Minakari and Tarsee are two main artistic fields flourished by the use of such sheets. Tarsee means inlaying gems, stones and metals on previously mentioned metallic surfaces considering the proportion among the color and form of the applied pieces. Studies about Minakari have revealed that some kind of Mina known as Bysans is derived from Iranian Mina. The oldest left samples of Minakari attest that Minakari originated from Iran and spread world wild. In the Mongol era, there was a new style of metalworking and enameling in Iran. In this style, Islamic forms and pictures were replaced by Mongolian royal figures and wears. Specifically, the art of metal inlaying reached to its zenith in Timur’s period. In Safavid period, Minakari art and metalworking underwent some changes. Silverware was decorated by specific reliefs such as party and combat, royal hunting and horse riding scenes. Minakari art benefited some Islamic and floral designs and the red color was mostly used.

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